# Logical Deduction

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Directions: In the following questions, statements are given and these statements are followed by conclusions. You have to take the given statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts. Read the conclusions and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the given statements, disregarding commonly known facts. You can also review your choices by clicking into answer section.

1. Statements:

All the trucks are flies.

Some scooters are flies.

Conclusions:

I. All the trucks are scooters.

II. Some scooters are trucks.

A. Only I conclusion follows

B. Only II conclusion follows

C. Either I or II follows

D. Neither I nor II follows

Ans: Option D

Explanation:

Neither I nor II follows.

2. Statements:

All calculators are boxes.

All boxes are taps.

Some taps are machines.

Conclusions:

I. Some machines are boxes.

II. Some taps are calculators.

III. Some boxes are calculators.

A. Only I and II follow

B. Only I and III follow

C. Only II and III follow

D. All I, II and III follow

E None of these

Ans: Option C

Explanation:

No explanation.

3. Statements:

All apples are fruits.

Some fruits are oranges.

Conclusions:

I. Some apples are oranges.

II. Some oranges are apples.

A. Only I follow

B. Only II follows

C. Both I & II follows

D. No conclusion

Ans: Option D

Explanation:

No explanation.

4. Statements:

All the pencils are pens.

All the pens are inks.

Conclusions:

I. All the pencils are inks.

II. Some inks are pencils.

A .Only I conclusion follows

B. Only II conclusion follows

C. Either I or II follows

D. Both I and II follow

Ans: Option D

Explanation:

5. Statements:

All cars are buses.

All buses are van.

Conclusions:

I. Some cars are van

II. All cars are van

A. Only I follow

B. Only II follows

C. Both I & II follows

D. No conclusion

Ans: Option B

Explanation:

1. The statement contains only 3 predicates.

2. The predicates are in their form.

3. The first statement is Universal positive and the second statement is also Universal positive.

4. If both the statements are universal positive then the conclusion should also be a universal positive. ………Rule 2

5. From the conclusion we can say that conclusion II follows the statement.

6. Statements:

All the phones are scales.

All the scales are calculators.

Conclusions:

I. All the calculators are scales.

II. All the phones are calculators

III. All the scales are phones.

IV. Some calculators are phones.

A. Only I and IV

B. Only III and IV

C. Only II and IV

D. Only I and II

E. Only I and III

Ans: Option C

Explanation:

7. Statements:

All plants are green

All trees are green

Conclusions:

I. Some plants are trees

II. Some trees are plants

A. Only I follow

B. Only II follows

C. Both I & II follows

D. No conclusion

Ans: Option D

Explanation:

No explanation.

8. Statements:

Some carrots are brinjals.

Some brinjals are apples.

All apples are bananas.

Conclusions:

I. Some apples are carrots.

II. Some bananas are brinjals.

III. Some bananas are carrots.

A. Only I follow

B. Only II follows

C. Only III follows

D. Only either II or III follow

Ans: Option B

Explanation:

No explanation.

9. Statements:

All the research scholars are psychologists.

Some psychologists are scientists.

Conclusions:

I. All the research scholars are scientists.

II. Some research scholars are scientists.

III. Some scientists are psychologists.

IV. Some psychologists are research scholars.

A. Only III and IV

B. None of the four

C. All the four

D. Only III

E. Only II and IV

Ans: Option A

Explanation:

10. Statements:

All fruits are leaves.

Some leaves are trees.

No tree is house.

Conclusions:

I. Some houses are fruits.

II. Some trees are fruits.

III. No house is fruit.

A. Only I follow

B. Only II follows

C. Only III follows

D. Only either I or III follows